Sunday, October 4, 2015


                     Shock is a life-threatening medical emergency condition characterized by profoundly low blood pressure and tissue hypoperfusion. Shock can cause multiple organ failure. It may progress to death unless there is immediate medical intervention.

Types of Shock
1. Hypovolemic Shock
2. Anaphlactic Shock
3. Cardiogenic Shock
4. Neurogenic Shock
5. Septic Shock
6. Diabetic Shock

Common Causes of Shock
1. Ignificant blood loss
2. Fluid loss
3. Dehydration
4. Allergic Reaction
5. Reduced blood pressure
6. Heart failure
7. Nerve damage
8. Blood infections
9. Spinal cord injury

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Saturday, October 3, 2015

Antibiotic Resistance

                 Antibiotic Resistance is a natural phenomenon. It occurs when an antibiotic has lost its ability to effectively control or kill bacterial growth; in other words, the bacteria are "resistant" and continue to multiply in the presence of therapeutic levels of an antibiotic. Resistant microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs, such as antibacterial drugs (e.g. antibiotics), antifungals, antivirals, and antimalarials, so that standard treatments become ineffective and infections persist, increasing the risk of spread to others.

Key Facts
1. It is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society.
2. In 2012, WHO reported a gradual increase in resistance to HIV drugs, albeit not reaching critical levels. Since then, further increases in resistance to first-line treatment drugs were reported, which might require using more expensive drugs in the near future.
3. In 2013, there were about 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has been identified in 100 countries. MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non-resistant TB.
4. There are high proportions of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause common infections (e.g. urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections) in all regions of the world.
5. Patients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are generally at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes and death, and consume more health-care resources than patients infected with the same bacteria that are not resistant.

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Thursday, October 1, 2015

Captopril ( ACE Inhibitor )

             Captopril is an ACE inhibitor. ACE stands for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme. Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, kidney problems caused by diabetes, and to improve survival after a heart attack.

Mechanism Of Action
The mechanism of action of Captopril  has not yet been fully elucidated. Its beneficial effects in hypertension and heart failure appear to result primarily from suppression of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system. However, there is no consistent correlation between renin levels and response to the drug. Renin, an enzyme synthesized by the kidneys, is released into the circulation where it acts on a plasma globulin substrate to produce angiotensin I, a relatively inactive decapeptide. Angiotensin I is then converted by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II, a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor substance. Angiotensin II also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex, thereby contributing to sodium and fluid retention.

Captopril prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by inhibition of ACE, a peptidyldipeptide carboxy hydrolase. This inhibition has been demonstrated in both healthy human subjects and in animals by showing that the elevation of blood pressure caused by exogenously administered angiotensin I was attenuated or abolished by captopril. In animal studies, captopril did not alter the pressor responses to a number of other agents, including angiotensin II and norepinephrine, indicating specificity of action.

Related Article 
-  Amlodipine (Anti-Hypertensive Drug)
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