Sunday, February 7, 2016

Osteoarthritis (OA)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. It is also known as degenerative arthritis or osteoarthrosis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting millions of people worldwide. It is mainly caused by aging joints, injury, and obesity. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. OA is the most common cause of a joint effusion of the knee.

Risk Factors
1. Older age : The risk of osteoarthritis increases with age.
2. Obesity : Carrying extra body weight contributes to osteoarthritis in several ways. It puts added stress on weight-bearing joints, such as your hips and knees.
3. Sex : Women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis, though it isn't clear why.
4. Joint injuries : Injuries, such as those that occur when playing sports or from an accident, may increase the risk of osteoarthritis.
5. Genetics : Some people inherit a tendency to develop osteoarthritis.
6. Bone deformities : Some people are born with malformed joints or defective cartilage, which can increase the risk of osteoarthritis.
7. Others :
- Diabetes
- Inflammatory diseases
- Alkaptonuria
- Marfan syndrome
- Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

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Costochondritis : Differential Diagnosis

1. Cardiac
 Heart attack
 Pericarditis/myocarditis
 Aortic aneurysm

2. Gastrointestinal
 Gastroesophageal reflux disease
► Gastritis
► Esophagitis

3. Musculoskeletal
■ Fibromyalgia
■ Rib fracture
■ Ankylosing spondylitis
■ Bone metastasis from cancers such as prostate cancer, breast cancer, plasmacytoma, and sarcomas
■ Reactive arthritis

4. Psychogenic
☞ Anxiety disorder
☞ Panic disorder
☞ Hyperventilation

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-  Costochondritis (Chest Wall Pain)
-  Medical Causes of Chest Pain

Costochondritis (Chest Wall Pain)

Costochondritis is an inflammation of the junctions where the upper ribs join with the cartilage that holds them to the breastbone, or sternum. It is also known as Chest wall pain, costosternal syndrome, Costosternal chondrodynia. It is a common cause of chest pain. Costochondritis is a relatively harmless condition and usually goes away without treatment. The cause is usually unknown, but may happen from increased activity involving the arms.

Causes
In most cases of costochondritis, no cause is identified. The some causes are :
1. Trauma
2. Infection of the costosternal joint
3. Rheumatoid arthritis
4. Osteoarthritis
5. Tumor (benign or cancerous)
6. Respiratory Tract infection

Signs & Symptoms
1. Pain : dull, usually will be sharp and located on your front chest wall.
2. Pain with a deep breath or cough.
3. The most common sites of pain are your fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs. 
4. Pain from costochondritis typically resolves within one year.
5. The reproducible tenderness you feel when you press on the rib joints (costochondral junctions) is a constant feature of costochondritis. 
6. Trouble breathing
7. Fever
8. Sweating
9. Nausea

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