Sunday, March 29, 2015


                     Bacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms that do not contain chlorophyll. They are unicellural and do not show true branching, except in the so-called 'higher bacteria' (Actenomycetales).
Bacteria are single celled microbes. The cell structure is simpler than that of other organisms as there is no nucleus or membrane bound organelles. Instead their control centre containing the genetic information is contained in a single loop of DNA. Some bacteria have an extra circle of genetic material called a plasmid. The plasmid often contains genes that give the bacterium some advantage over other bacteria. For example it may contain a gene that makes the bacterium resistant to a certain antibiotic.

Bacteria are classified into several groups according to their basic shapes :
1. Spherical (cocci)
- They are spherical or oval cells.
2. Rod (bacilli)
- They are rod shaped cells.
3. Spiral (spirilla)
- Spirilla are rigid spiral forms.
4. Comma (vibrios)
5. Corkscrew (spirochaetes).
They can exist as single cells, in pairs, chains or clusters.

Wallace Rule of Nine for Burns

                     Rule of Nine is a method of estimating the extent of burns, expressed as a percentage of total body surface. It is also known as Wallace Rule of Nines. In this method, the body is divided into sections of 9 per cent, or multiples of 9 per cent.

In Adult :
1. Head & Neck ---------------------> 9%
2. Front of trunk --------------------> 18%
3. Back of trunk ---------------------> 18%
4. Front of upper limbs ------------> 9%
5. Back of upper limbs -------------> 9%
6. Fronts of upper limbs -----------> 18%
7. Back of lower limb ---------------> 18%
8. Perineum --------------------------> 1%

In Adult
In children :
1. Head & Neck ---------------------> 18%
2. Front of trunk --------------------> 18%
3. Back of trunk ---------------------> 18%
4. Front of upper limbs ------------> 9%
5. Back of upper limbs -------------> 9%
6. Fronts of upper limbs -----------> 14%
7. Back of lower limb ---------------> 14%

In Child

Saturday, March 28, 2015


              Endometriosis is a medical condition where the tissue lining the uterus (the endometrium) migrates to other parts of the body. The condition can lead to serious health complications including chronic pain, taut, distended abdomen, abnormal menstruation, infertility, damage to other internal organs and impairment of fertility.

Endometriosis typically occurs on the surfaces of organs in the pelvic and abdominal areas. Health care providers may call areas of endometriosis by different names, such as implants, lesions, or nodules.

The word endometriosis comes from the word "endometrium" - "endo" means "inside" and "metrium" means "mother".

Most endometriosis is found in the pelvic cavity :
✈ On or under the ovaries
✈ On the fallopian tubes
✈ Behind the uterus
✈ On the tissues that hold the uterus in place, such as ligaments
✈ On the bowels or bladder

Sign & Symptoms
One of the most common symptoms of endometriosis is pain, mostly in the abdomen, lower back, and pelvic areas. The amount of pain a woman feels is not linked to how much endometriosis she has. Some women have no pain even though their endometriosis is extensive, meaning that the affected areas are large, or that there is scarring. Some women, on the other hand, have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis.
☞ Extremely painful (or disabling) menstrual cramps; pain may get worse over time
☞ Chronic pelvic pain (includes lower back pain and pelvic pain)
☞ Pain during or after sex
☞ Intestinal pain
☞ Painful bowel movements or painful urination during menstrual periods
☞ Heavy menstrual periods
☞ Premenstrual spotting or bleeding between periods
☞ Infertility

Related Article :
-  Antepartum Haemorrhage (APH)
-  Prostate Cancer
-  Genital Warts