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Friday, July 18, 2014

7 Facts About Human Brain

       The brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. It is made up of more than 100 billion nerves that communicate in trillions of connections called synapses.

Here are 7 Facts About Human Brain :
1. The brain is the center of the human nervous system, controlling our thoughts, movements, memories and decisions.
2. The brain contains billions of nerve cells that send and receive information around the body.
3. The human brain is over three times as big as the brain of other mammals that are of similar body size.
4. The largest part of the human brain is called the cerebrum. Other important parts include corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and brain stem.
5. The human brain is protected by the skull (cranium), a protective casing made up of 22 bones that are joined together.
6. The brain of an adult human weighs around 3 pounds (1.5 kg). Although it makes up just 2% of the body's weight, it uses around 20% of its energy.
7. The brain is suspended in Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), effectively floating in liquid that acts as both a cushion to physical impact and a barrier to infections.

15 Facts About Blood

         Here are 15 Facts About Blood :
1. One pint of blood can save up to three lives.
2. Healthy adults who are at least 17 years old, and at least 110 pounds may donate about a pint of blood—the most common form of donation—every 56 days, or every two months, depending on iron levels. Females receive 53 percent of blood transfusions; males receive 47 percent.
3. Four main red blood cell types: A, B, AB and O. Each can be positive or negative for the Rh factor. AB is the universal recipient; O negative is the universal donor of red blood cells.
4. One unit of blood can be separated into several components: red blood cells, plasma, platelets and cryoprecipitate.
5. Red blood cells live about 120 days in the circulatory system. RBC carry oxygen to the body’s organs and tissues.
6. White cells are the body’s primary defense against infection.
7. Anemic patients need blood transfusions to increase their red blood cell levels.
8. hirteen tests (11 for infectious diseases) are performed on each unit of donated blood.
9. Four easy steps to donate blood: medical history, quick physical, donation and snacks.
10. Blood makes up about 7 percent of your body’s weight.
11. A newborn baby has about one cup of blood in his body.
12. Plasma, which is 90 percent water, makes up 55 percent of blood volume.
13. Platelets promote blood clotting and give those with leukemia and other cancers a chance to live.
14. Blood or plasma that comes from people who have been paid for it cannot be used to human transfusion.
15. Granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, roll along blood vessel walls in search of bacteria to engulf and destroy.

Causes of Hepatomegaly

      Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver. It is a nonspecific medical sign having many causes, which can broadly be broken down into infection, direct toxicity, hepatic tumours, or metabolic disorder.

Common Causes of Hepatomegaly are :
1. Infective
- Glandular fever (Infectious mononucleosis)
- Hepatitis (Although not all hepatitis viruses cause hepatomegaly)
- Liver abscess (pyogenic abscess and amoebic abscess)
- Malaria
- Amoeba infections
- Hydatid cyst
- Actinomycosis
2. Neoplastic
- Metastatic tumours secondary to spread from cancer in other organs (most common)
- Hemangiomas
- Hepatocellular carcinoma
- Myeloma
- Leukemia
- Lymphoma
3. Cirrhotic
- Portal
- Biliary
- Cardio
- Haemochromatosis
4. Metabolic 
- Fatty infiltration
- Gaucher's disease
- Glycogen Storage Disease types III, VI and IX
5. Drugs and toxins
- Alcoholism
- Poisoning
6. Congenital 
- Hemolytic anemia
- Polycystic disease
- Cori's disease
7. Others 
- Budd–Chiari syndrome
- Hunter syndrome
- Zellweger's syndrome
- Right ventricular failure
- Glycogen storage disease type II