Sunday, April 19, 2015

Atenolol [ Antihypertensive Drug ]

                     Atenolol is in a group of drugs called beta-blockers. Beta-blockers affect the heart and circulation (blood flow through arteries and veins). Atenolol is used to treat angina (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is also used to treat or prevent heart attack.

You should not use this medication if you are allergic to atenolol, or if you have certain heart conditions such as slow heartbeats, or heart block.

Mechanism of Action
Competitively blocks beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and juxtoglomerular apparatus. They lead to decreased heart rate decreasing the work load by the heart. They do not produce coronary vasodilatation but lead to a shift and redistribution of coronary circulation to the ischemic areas. It decreases the release of renin from the kidney, thus lowering blood pressure.

✔ Treatment of angina pectoris due to coronary atherosclerosis
✔ Hypertension, as a step 1 agent, alone or with other drugs, especially diuretics
✔ Treatment of myocardial infarction
✔ Unlabeled uses: prevention of migraine headaches; alcohol withdrawal syndrome, treatment of ventricular arrhythmias.

Related Article :
-   Amlodipine ( Anti-Hypertensive Drug )
-   Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors
-   Contraindications of Beta Blockers [ Mnemonic ]

Saturday, April 18, 2015

Hypersensitivity [ Hypersensitivity Reaction ]

                         Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity. These reactions may be damaging, uncomfortable, or occasionally fatal. Hypersensitivity reactions require a pre-sensitized (immune) state of the host.

Types of Hypersensitivity
1. Type 1 - Immediate (or atopic, or anaphylactic)
 Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.
 The reaction may be either local or systemic. Symptoms vary from mild irritation to sudden death from anaphylactic shock.
 Treatment usually involves epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids.
 The difference between a normal immune response and a type I hypersensitivity response is that plasma cells secrete IgE. This class of antibodies binds to Fc receptors on the surface of tissue mast cells and blood basophils. Mast cells and basophils coated by IgE are "sensitised".
 Some examples of type 1 hypersensitivity :
■ Allergic asthma
■ Allergic conjunctivitis
■ Allergic rhinitis ("hay fever")
■ Anaphylaxis
■ Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
■ Urticaria (hives)

Friday, April 17, 2015

Cranial Nerves ( With Mnemonics )

                   Cranial nerves are nerves emerging directly from the brain, which is in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from various segments of the spinal cord). Spinal nerves emerge regularly from the spinal cord with the nerve closest to the head emerging in the space above the first cervical vertebra with the nerve C1, with the cranial nerves filling corresponding roles above this level. Each cranial nerve is paired and is present on both sides.

Humans are considered to have twelve pairs of cranial nerves, which are numbered I–XII. They are the following :

1. Old Open Oceans Trouble Tribesmen About Far Ventures, Global Vacations, Accusing Hydrophobia.
2. Oh, Oh, Oh, TTouch A Female’s Vagina Gives Vinny A Hard-on
3. Oh, Oh, Oh, TTouch And Fondle A Vorgeous Very Super Human
4. On Old Olympus’ Towering Top, A Friendly Viking Grew Vines And Hops
5. Oh, Oh, Oh, TTouch And Feel Very Green Vegetables, Such Heaven
6. Only Owls Observe Them Traveling And Finding Voldemort Guarding Very Secret Horcruxes
7. Old, Oliver, Ogg, Traveled, To, Africa, For, Very, Good, Vacations, And, Holidays
8. Old Officers Often Trust The Army For A Glory Vague And Hypothetical
9. OOOTry Try Again Failure Victory Gives Value And Harmony
10. OOOTTouch And Feel A Great Vampire And ‘Shoot’ Him.

Olfactory nerve (I)
Optic nerve (II)
Oculomotor nerve (III)
Trochlear nerve (IV)
Trigeminal nerve (V)
Abducens nerve (VI)
Facial nerve (VII)
Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
Vagus nerve (X)
Accessory nerve (XI)
Hypoglossal nerve (XII)

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